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OTC

OTC

INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER HEALTHCARE PRODUCTS WEBSITES

Questions or comments about these sites or the information they contain should be directed to the organization responsible for the site.

 

CONSUMER GROUPS

AARP     www.aarp.org

Council on Family Health               www.cfhinfo.org

National Consumers League       www.natlconsumersleague.org

National Council of La Raza          www.nclr.org

National Council of Negro Women           www.ncnw.org

National Council on the Aging     www.ncoa.org

National Hispanic Council on Aging           www.nhcoa.org

National Women’s Health Resource Center         www.healthywomen.org

Poison Prevention Week Council              www.poisonprevention.org

United Seniors Health Council    www.unitedseniorshealth.org

YWCA of the U.S.A.         www.ywca.org

 

GOVERNMENT/OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

Code of Federal Regulations       www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/index.html

Consumer Information Center   www.pueblo.gsa.gov

Federal Register               www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/

Federal Trade Commission          www.ftc.gov

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)       www.fda.gov

Healthfinder Espanol      www.healthfinder.gov/espanol

National Institutes of Health       www.nih.gov

National Guideline Clearinghouse            www.guideline.gov

Office of Dietary Supplements   ods.od.nih.gov

Product Quality Research Institute           www.pqri.org

 

INTERNATIONAL

AESGP (The Association of the European              www.aesgp.be Self-Medication Industry)

Australian Self Medication Industry         www.asmi.com.au

Consumer Health Information Center    www.chic.org.uk (United Kingdom)

Health Supplements Information Service              www.hsis.org

PAGB’s Medicine Chest                www.medicine-chest.co.uk

Nonprescription Drug Manufacturers     www.ndmac.ca Association of Canada

Proprietary Association of Great Britain www.pagb.co.uk

Proprietary Association of Japan               www.otc.gr.jp

World Self-Medication Industry (WSMI)                www.wsmi.org

TRADE/MEDICAL ASSOCIATIONS

Advanced Medical Technology Association          www.advamed.org American Botanical Council www.herbalgram.org

American Medical Student Association  www.amsa.org

American Pharmaceutical Association     www.aphanet.org

American Public Health Association         www.apha.org Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association     www.ctfa.org The Drug, Chemical & Allied Trades Association          www.dcat.org Food and Drug Law Institute         www.fdli.org

Healthcare Distribution Management Association             www.Healthcaredistribution.org National Association of Chain Drug Stores   www.nacds.org

National Community Pharmacists Association     www.ncpanet.org

Pharmaceutical Research and     www.phrma.org Manufacturers of America

U.S. Pharmacopeia          www.usp.org

 

OTHER SOURCE INFORMATION

Healthscout        www.healthscout.com

Intelihealth         www.intelihealth.com

MDLinx.com       www.mdlinx.com

Nonprescription Medicines Academy     www.nmafaculty.org

Pharmaceutical Technology         www.pharmaceutical-technology.com

WebMD               www.webmd.com

In this section, we list the definition of the various dermatological preparations and the bases of their preparation, along with the most frequently used preparations that are still freshly prepared by the pharmacist. This includes: Ointments, Creams, Paints, Lotions, Drops and Washes, Pastes and Poultices.

 

PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS

 

OINTMENTS

Ointments are semisolid preparations intended for external uses. (Skin and Percutaneous Absorption)

  • Medicated
  • Non-medicated (ointment bases)
  • emollient or lubricant
  • vehicle for the preparation of medicated ointments

 

Ointment Bases

  1. Hydrocarbon bases
  • Petrolatum (semisolid hydrocarbon, melting point 38-68oC, yellow to light amber)
  • White petrolatum (not water washable, occlusive)
  • Yellow ointment (95% petrolatum + 5% purified wax)
  • Mineral oil (liquid hydrocarbon from petrolatum)
  1. Absorption bases - Permit incorporation of aqueous solutions (form water/oil emulsions)
  • Anhydrous lanolin (2 times of water/weight)
  • Hydrophilic petrolatum (cholesterol, stearyl alcohol, white wax, white petrolatum

Aquaphor - refined hydrophilic petrolatum, takes up 3 times of water per weight

  1. Emulsion bases - water-in-oil type (already emulsions)
  • Lanolin (from sheep wool): semisolid, fat-like substance, 25-30% water
  • Cold cream (cetyl ester wax, white wax, mineral oil, sodium borate, purified water + soap [fatty acid sodium salt] to emulsify)
  1. Emulsion bases - oil-in-water type (can be washed from skin or clothing with water)
  • Hydrophilic ointment:
  • sodium laurylsulfate (emulsifying agent)
  • stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum (oily phase)
  • water and propylene glycol (aqueous phase)
  1. Water-soluble bases - contain only water soluble components (water-washable, “greaseless”)

Soften greatly with the addition of water. Aqueous solutions are not effectively incorporated, better for the incorporation of nonaqueous or solid substances.

  • Poly(ethylene glycol)/PEG ointment: 60/40 (w/w) PEG400/PEG3350
  • may contain 6-25% water 5% stearyl alcohol, 60% PEG 400, 35% PEG 3350 (firm)

 

Selection of the appropriate base based on

  • Desired release rate
  • Desirability for enhancement of percutaneous absorption
  • Advisability of occlusion
  • Short-term or long-term stability
  • Influence of drug on consistency or other features of ointment base
  • Patient factor - dry or weeping (oozing) skin

 

Preparation of ointments

  1. Incorporation: mix together (mortar & pestle, spatula & slab)
  • roller mill

-“levigating” the powder (reduction of particle size in suspending agent compatible with the

ointment base)

  1. Fusion: all or some components of an ointment melted together and cooled with constant stirring until congealed, add

non-melting substances as the ointment is being cooled and stirred

  • in porcelain dish or beaker, industry: steel-jacketed kettles

 

Preservation of ointments

  • Microbial content (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureas) determined and controlled
  • Sterile preparations (some)
  • Chemical antimicrobial preservatives: p-hydroxybenzoates, phenols, benzoic acid, sorbic acid,

quaternary ammonium salts, organic mercury compounds, formaldehyde

 

Packaginng and Storage

Jars and tubes.

 

Various Ointments

  1. Icthamol Ointment
  • Icthtyl   10 g
  • Simple Oint (Vaseline)...........to...... 100 g

Used in inflamed boils.

 

  1. Salicylic acid Ointment
  • Salicylic acid 2 g

- Vaseline.............to ...........................100 g

 

Used as an antiseptic

 

  1. Whitfield Ointment

- Benzoic acid ........................................3 g

- Salicylic acid......................................1.5 g

- Lanolin .........to ..................................50 g

Used as an antifungal

 

  1. White ppt. Ointment (Ammoniated Mercury Ointment)

- Amm. Hg...........................................2.5 g

- Vaseline.............to ...........................100 g

Used at the anal area during treatment with anthilmentitcs

 

  1. Zinc Oxide Ointment

- ZnO.....................................................15 g

- Vaseline ............to ...........................100 g

Used as: Astringent, soothing and protective.

 

  1. Boric Acid Ointment

- Boric acid..................... .......................10 g

- Vaseline ..........to.......... .....................100 g

Used as an antiseptic

 

  1. Sulphur Ointment

- Sulphur .................................................5 g

- Liquid paraffin.....................................5 ml

- Vaseline.......... to ...........................100 ml

Used as: Drug of choice for scabies, and used for acne

 

  1. Iodine Ointment

- Iodine....................................................4 g

- KI .........................................................4 g

- H2O (Dist)...........................................4 ml

- Yellow soft paraffin....... to............... 100 g

  • Method: Dissolve KI & Iodine in dist. H2O then mix with base.

 

  1. Non Staining Iodine Ointment

- Iodine ...................................................5 g

- Arachis oil...........................................15 g

- Yellow Soft paraffin .....to................ 100 g

 

  1. Scotts Ointment (Comp. Mercury Ointment)

White ppt Oint.......................................40 g

Lano Vaseline .......................................24 g

Olive Oil ................................................24 g

Camphor ..............................................12 g

Used as dressing for large wounds

  • Strong Mercury:

- Mercury ....................................... .......30 g

- Oleated mercury ......................... ......1.5 g

- Wool fat...............................................43 g

- White bees wax.....................................7 g

- White soft paraffin ..........................18.5 g

Uses: As dressing for large wounds

 

  1. Coal Tar Ointments

a)

OR: b)

- Coal tar ............................................6.25 g

- Salicylic acid .......................................4 g

- Zinc oxide ............................. ..........12.5 g

- Crude coal tar .....................................2 g

- Calamina .........................................12.5 g

- Ultaclan oint.......................................20 g

- Vaseline ............to ............................100 g

- Ammoniated Hg ................................80 g

- Lanolin ............................................20 g

 

- Vaseline ..........................................80 g

 

OR: c)

OR: d)

- Salicylic acid......................................... 5 g

- Coal tar solution .................................2 ml

- Crude coal tar .......................................5 g

- Betnovate oint (or Betaderm).............25 g

- Diprisone .............................................20 g

- Vaseline ............to ..............................10 g

- Vaseline......... to ................................100 g

 

 

 

Uses: All forms of Coal-tar ointment are used for psoriasis

 

  1. Anti-Dandruff Ointment

- Stilbesterol ...........................................50 g

- Prednisolone.........................................50 g

  • Lanolin (Mix)

- Vaseline..........to ......................... .......100 g

  1. Ointments for Hyperpigmentation
  1. OR (Leucodenuine - B Ointment)

- Bismuth subnitrate ............................1.5 g

- Salicylic acid ........................................1 g

- ZnO ............................................ ........1.5 g

- Bismuth subgallate ...........5 g

- Lano - Vaseline

- H2O2 ...............................q.s.

- Euserine & Vaseline.......to..................50 g

 

N.B. : q.s. means H2O2 added to lanolin till complete saturation.

 

 

14 - Antiseptic Ointment

- ZnO ................................................... 15 g

- Boric acid .................................. .........10 g

- Dermatol.............................................5 g

- Peru Balsam (Benzoin) ....................….5 g

- Lano Vaseline ....... add to.............…...60 g

 

  1. Keratolytic Ointments

(

a)

OR: (b)

- Salicylic acid .....................................10 g

- Salicylic ...............................................5 g

- Benzoic acid ......................... .............12 g

- Glycerin starch ................. ................50 g

- Esperson oint ....................................10 g

- Vaseline ..............add ........................50 g

- Lanolin .............to.................. .............10 g

 

N.B. Method of preparation of Glycerin- starch base:

8.5 g starch levigated with 17 ml of H2O2+ 74.5 g

Glycerin (62 ml) heat with storing 100 g base.

 

  1. Acne Preparations
  1. Sulphur and Resorcinol Ointment

- Sulphur ................................. ............4.5 g

- Resorcinol ............................................3 g

- Yellow Soft paraffin............... ...........92.5 g

  1. Hydrogen Peroxide Ointment

- Lanolin ........................................ ........10 g

- Vaseline ..............................................10 g

- H2O2 ............add.................................10 g

 

CREAMS

  • Viscous liquid or semisolid emulsions of oil-in-water or water-in-oil type
  • Easier to spread and easier to remove than ointments

 

Various Creams

  1. Calamine Cream

- Calamine ............................................40 g

- ZnO ....................................................30 g

- Arachis oil ....................................... 300 g

- Emulsifying wax .................................60 g

- H2O...........to ..................................1000 g

Method:

Warm arachis oil dissolve the emulsifying wax in it with gentle heating add 400 ml H2O at same temperature and incorporate in the cream until cold. Triturate ZnO & Calamine in the remaining H2O.

 

  1. Vanishing Cream

- Stearic acid ............... .......................20 g

- KOH ...................................................0.5 g

- Alcohol (90%) .....................................5 ml

- Borax .................................................1.5 g

- H2O ...................................................37 ml

Method:

  • KOH & Alcohol added to method acid then we boil (H2 & Borax) then mix.
  • Allow to stand for 12 hours.

 

  1. Cold Cream

- White beeswax ..................................18 g

- Borax ...................................................1 g

- Almond oil ...........................................1 g

- Rose oil ...........................................0.1 ml

- Rose water....................................... 20 ml

Method

  • Dissolve borax in hot water.
  • Dissolve white beeswax and Almond oil then mix.

 

 

 

  1. Glycerin Borax Paint

- Borax .................................. ................13 g

- Glycerin .............to ............. ............100 ml

Uses: Astringent & soothing in mouth ulcers

 

  1. Glycerin Tannic Acid Paint

- Tannic acid ......................... ...............15 g

- Glycerin ...........to ............... .............100 g

Uses: Astringent in mouth ulcers

 

  1. Dental Glycerin Iodine

- Iodine .................................................10 g

- KI ............. to ...................................100 g

- Zinc Sulphate .....................................10 g

- Glycerin ............................... .............35 ml

- H2O ...........to ..................... ............100 ml

 

  1. Dental Glycerin Zinc Chloride

- Zinc Chloride ....................................1 mg

- Water .................................. ............ 0.5 ml

- Alcohol ................................. ...........1.5 ml

- Glycerin ..................... ......................1.6 ml

Uses : For desensitization for exposed dentin

 

  1. Glycerin Sulphur

- Sulphur ..............................................20 g

Uses: For scabies in rabbits (vet)

 

  1. Gentian Violet Paint

- Gentian Violet ......................................1 g

- Alcohol 70% (H2O) ........to ............100 ml

 

  1. Mercurochrome Paint (aqueous)

- Mercurochrome .................... ...............2 g

- Water .............to .................. ...........100 ml

 

 

PAINTS

 

 

  1. Mercurochrome Paint (Alcohol)

- Mercurochrome ...................................2 g

- Alcohol 60% .........to .....................100 ml

N.B. Mercurochrome dissolved first in water then complete with Alcohol.

 

  1. Methylene Blue Paint

- Methylene blue ............. ....................0.5 g

- Alcohol 70% .........to ......................100 ml

 

  1. Iodine Paint 10% (strong soln.)

- Iodine ......................... ........................10 g

- KI ............................... ...........................6 g

- H2O ............................ .......................10 ml

- Alcohol 90% .........to .. ....................100 ml

Used for the treatment of tinea

 

  1. Tr. Iodine Paint 2.5 g

- I2 ........................................................2.5 g

- KI .................................. ...................2.5 ml

- Dist - water .................... .................. 10 ml

- Alcohol 90% ........to ...... .................100 ml

 

  1. Castellani’s Paint (Magenta Paint)

- Basic fuchsine ..................................0.4 g

- Phenol .................................................4 g

- Boric acid .........................................0.8 g

- Resorcinol ...........................................8 g

Method:

  • Dissolve boric acid in boiling water
  • Phenol + resorcinol + boric acid solution ...........soln (1)
  • Basic fuchsine + Alcohol + Acetone ...................soln (2)

OR ... Another method

- Phenol in water ....................................................soln (1)

- Basic fuchsine + Alcohol......................................soln (2)

- Boric acid + soln (1) .............................................soln (3)

- soln (2) + soln (3) .................................................soln (4)

  • After 2 hrs add soln (4) + Resorcinol ...................soln (5)
  • After other 2 hrs add soln (5) + Acetone ................paint

N.B. Do not use before 24 hrs. Used for treatment of tinea

 

  1. Glycerin-Magnesia Paint

- Mg SO4 ............................... ....................g

- H2O ...................................... ..................ml

- Glycerin ............................... ...........100 ml

Method:

  • Dissolve Mg SO4 in least amount of water by heating super saturation
  • Add Glycerin on cold

Uses: Wound dressing.

 

  1. Keratolytic Paint

- Salicylic Acid...................... .................. 5 g

- Lactic Acid ......................... .................. 5 g

- Collodion .........to ........... .. ...............30 ml

 

  1. Keratolytic Paint & for Hypopigmentation

- Salicylic Acid........................................30 g

- Boric Acid ............................................30 g

- Pilocarpine .............................................1 g

- Meladenine ..........................................10 g

- Lactic Acid .........................................10 ml

- Alcohol (70%) .........to .... ... ...........100 ml

Uses: for alopecia.

 

  1. Paint for Hypopigmentation

- Meladenine ......................................15 ml

- Alcohol ...........add ............... ............45 ml

 

  1. Tannic Acid & Glycerin Paint

- Tannic acid ........................................20 g

- Sod - Citrate .......................................1 g

- Glycerin ...........to .........................100 ml

Uses: Astringent for wounds

 

  1. Antiseptic Paint

- ZnO ......................................................3 g

- Boric acid ............................................3 g

- Alcohol 70% .......to ........................100 ml

  • N.B. (1 g of Camphor & 1 mg of Menthol can be added).

 

  1. Paint for Acne

- Sulphur ............................... ...............10 g

- Resorcinol ..............................................3 g

- Borax......................................................6 g

- Glycerin .................................................6 g

- ZnO .......................................................6 g

- Talc Powder .......................... ..............25 g

- Alcohol 80% ........to ........... ..........300 ml

 

  1. Paint for Acne

- Sulphur ..................................................4g

- Resorcinol ........................................ 2.5 g

 

- ZnO .....................................................15 g

- Talc Powder .......................... ..............15 g

- Glycerin .............................................10 ml

- Alcohol 50% ........to .......................100 ml

 

  1. Paint for Tinea

- Salicylic Acid .........................................8 g

- Benzoic Acid ............... .........................8 g

- Resorcinol .............................................8 g

- Glycerin .............................................20 ml

- Alcohol 70%... ......to ............ ..........300 ml

 

  1. Paint for Tinea

- Iodine ............................. ......................1 g

- KI ................................... ...................0.3 g

- Menthol .............................................0.3 g

- Glycerin ....................... ....................30 ml

 

  1. Paint for Tinea

- Salicylic Acid ........................................3 g

- Benzoic Acid ........................................3 g

- Sod Thiosulphate ...............................10 g

- Alcohol 70% ........to .......................100 ml

 

24 - Sodium Thiosulphate Paint

- Sod. Thiosulphate ................ ..............30 g

- Water ..............to ............................100 ml

Uses for tinea versicolor

 

  1. Paint for Monilia

- Salicylic Acid .......................................5 g

- Benzoic Acid ...................................... 5 g

- Iodine ..................................................3 g

- Alcohol .........add ............................50 ml

  • (Few crystals of Gentian Violet can be added)

 

  1. Paint for Tinea & Monilia

- Salicylic Acid ........................................3 g

- Benzoic Acid ....................................... 3 g

- Acetone ........................ .....................10 g

- Glycerin ........................................... 20 ml

- Alcohol (60%) .........to ........ .........100 ml

 

  1. Silver Nitrate Paint

- Silver Nitrate ........................................5 g

- Dist. water .........to ......................1000 ml

N.B. Protect from light

 

  1. Bergamot Oil Paint

- Bergamot Oil .................................10 ml

- Alcohol 95% .........to ..................100 ml

 

Uses: for Vitiling & hypopigmentation

 

 

 

LOTIONS

 

 

Liquid preparations containing finely powdered substances that are insoluble in the dispersion medium through the use of suspending agent, or have as the dispersed phase liquid substances that are immiscible with the vehicle and are usually dispersed by means of emulsifying agents. (Most commonly, the vehicles of lotions are aqueous).

 

Barious Lotions

  1. Calamine Lotion

- Calamine ..............................................8 g

- ZnO ..................................................... 8 g

- Glycerin ............................................. 6 ml

  • Lime water (or Rose water) ...to .... 100 ml

Use: Soothing and antiseptic

 

  1. Calamine with Sulphur

- Sulphur ppt ......................................... 2 g

 

- Calamine lotion ...... to .................. 100 ml

Method: Sulphur is levigated with small amount of Glycerin.... then add Calamine lotion

 

  1. Calamine with Phenol (Phenol Lotion)

- Liq. Phenol .................... ...................0.5 g

- Calamine Lotion .............................100 ml

 

  1. Calamine with Icthamol

- Icthamol .............................................. 2 g

- Calamine lotion ............................. 100 ml

Uses: for cellulitis

 

  1. Scalp Lotion

- Resorcinol ...........................................2 g

- Salicylic Acid .......................................2 g

- Sod. metabisulphite .......................0.01 g

- Glycerin .............................................6 ml

- Alcohol 50% ..................................100 ml

 

  1. Benzyl Benzoate Lotion

- Benzyl Benzoate ................. ............33 ml

- Soft Soup .........................................33 ml

- Alcohol 70% .....to ..........................100 ml

Uses: for the treatment of scabies

 

  1. White Lotion

- Zn So4 ...............................................25 ml

- Talk Powder .......................................25 ml

- Glycerin ............................................ 25 ml

Use : Astringent, Antiseptic, Soothing agent

 

  1. Lead- Subacetate Lotion (Conc. Solution)

- Pb-acetate ........................................250 g

- Pb-oxide............................................175 g

- Dist. water....... to .........................1000 ml

Method :

  • Dissolve (Pb-acetate) in boiling water then cool, then add Pb-oxide
  • Set aside for 48 hrs with shaking then filter with washing
  • Strong soln of Pb subacetate..... 12.5 ml

- Dist water......to ...........................1000 ml

  • Use

N.B. Must be freshly prepared

 

  1. Boric Acid Lotion

- Boric Acid ........................................... 4 g

- Dist water to ............................... 1000 ml

Uses : Skin antiseptic

2% eye lotion

 

  1. Acne Vulgaris Lotion

- Calamine ................... ...........................2 g

- Salicylic acid ............. .......................... 1 g

- Sulphur .................... ...........................1 g

- ZnO .........................   ............................2 g

- Resorcinol ..............     ............................2 g

- Tetracycline HCl......     ..........1 cap (250 mg)

- Glycerin .................... ..........................q.s.

- Alcohol 70% ............ .........................50 ml

 

  1. Potassium Permanganate Lotion 1/10000 or 1/8000 or 1/5000

i.e. K-perment ............. ...........................1 g

Water ...... to ... ................................5000 ml

. /or 8000 ml

. /or 10000 ml

 

12 - Eusol Lotion (Chlorinated Lime & Boric Acid Lotion )

- Chlorinated Lime ............................ 1.25 g

- Boric Acid ........................................1.25 g

 

- Water .......... to .............................. 100 ml

Method :

  • Triturate chlorinated lime with a part of cold water smooth paste.
  • Dissolve boric acid with boiling water, cool
  • Mix paste with cold boric acid solution with vigorous shaking
  • Leave for 24 hrs
  • Filter clear solution

Uses: Antiseptic lotion for wounds

N.B.

  • Must be freshly prepared
  • Not to be used after 2 weeks

 

13- Alcoholic Whitfield Lotion

- Salicylic Acid ................ .....................30 g

- Benzoic Acid ......................................60 g

- Glycerin ......................................... 100 ml

- Alcohol ...........to ......... ................ 1000 ml

 

  1. Glycerin Bicarbonate Ear Drops

- Sodium bicarbonate ........................... 5 g

- Glycerin ........................................... 33 ml

- Water ........ to .................................100 ml

Use: Washing out ear wax

 

  1. Hydrogen Peroxide Ear Drops

- H2O2 soln (10 vol.) ............................ 5 g

- Water ............ to .......... ...................100 ml

N.B. Must be freshly prepared

 

  1. Glycerin Phenol Ear Drops

- Liq. Phenol ....................................... 5 ml

- Glycerin ........... to ........................ 100 ml

 

 

VARIOUS DROPS & WASHES

 

 

PASTES AND POULTICES

  • Pastes contain a larger percentage of solid material than ointments (thicker and stiffer)
  • Will not soften and flow after application

 

Various Pastes

  1. Zinc Oxide Paste

- ZnO ...............................................12.5 g

- Talc ................................................12.5 g

- White Soft Paraffin ........................12.5 g

- Lanolin ..........................................12.5 g

 

  1. Zinc Oxide & Coal Tar Paste

- Sulphur ppt ........................................ 3 g

- Starch ............................................... 20 g

- ZnO .....................................................3 g

- Yellow Soft Paraffin ..........................50 g

 

  1. Sulphur Resorcin Paste

- Sulphur ppt ....................................205 g

- Resorcinol .......................................1.5 g

- ZnO Paste .............to .......................10 g

 

  1. Unna’s Paste

- ZnO ..................................................15 g

- Gelatin ............................................35 ml

- Glycerin ..........................................35 ml

- Water ..............................................35 ml

 

  1. Kaolin Poultice

- Heavy Kaolin .....................................527 g

- Boric acid ............................................45 g

- Methyl salicylate .................................2 ml

- Peppermint Oil ............... ................ 0.5 ml

- Thymol .......................... .................0.5 ml

- Glycerin ....................... ...................425 ml

Method

  1. Kaolin heated in sand bath for - hours to kill spores & bacteria .
  2. Add Boric acid + Glycerin to Kaolin and heat the mix at 120ºC for 1 hr.
  3. Cool, add Peppermint + Thymol in Methylsalicylate
  4. Mix well & store in dry cool place.

In this section we have included some Vitamin, Mineral and Nutrient Definitions and a practical Guide to the Treatment of Common

Ailments. These are inteneded as patient information guidance and do not substitute for doctors’ advice.

 

 

 

VITAMIN, MINERAL AND NUTRIENT DEFINITIONS

 

Antioxidant

Antioxidants may neutralize the effects of free radicals (oxidants), which many scientists believe can be a cause of cell damage.

Examples of antioxidant nutrients include vitamins C and E and vitamin A as beta carotene.

Beta Carotene

Beta Carotene is an important source of vitamin A. It is believed to be a superior source of vitamin A because it is readily converted into a more active form of the substance. Good sources of beta carotene include: red, yellow, orange and many dark green leafy

vegetables.

Biotin

Biotin is important for cell growth and the metabolism of fats, sugar and some amino acids. It helps to release energy from carbohydrates. Good sources of biotin include: eggs, liver, yeast breads and cereals.

Boron

Boron is a mineral present in the diet and in the human body in trace amounts. Boron may promote bone and joint health, particularly in women. Sources of boron include: raisins, peanuts, juices, fruits (other than citrus), leafy vegetables, legumes and nuts.

Calcium (Elemental)

Calcium is crucial in forming strong bones and teeth and is essential for muscle contraction and the transmission of nerve impulses.

Good sources of calcium include: milk, yogurt and most cheeses. Also dark green leafy vegetables (like kale, broccoli, bok choy) and fish with edible bones.

Chloride

Chloride is a mineral generally consumed as sodium chloride or table salt. There is a high correlation between the sodium and chloride contents of the diet. Chloride serves as an electrolyte helping to preserve the fluids in our body and plays an important role in nerve function. Good sources of chloride include: table salt, chlorinated water, some fruits and vegetables.

Chromium

Chromium, in combination with B-vitamins, helps the body regulate fuel stores for energy. Good sources of chromium include: meat, eggs, whole-grain products and cheese.

Copper

Copper is important for the formation of bone, hemoglobin and red blood cells. Copper also helps keeps nerves healthy, and is involved in hair and skin coloring and sensitivity to taste as well as aiding in the healing process. Good sources of copper include: organ meats, especially liver, seafood, nuts and seeds.

Daily Value

Daily value is used on labels to indicate the percent of the recommended daily amount of each nutrient that a serving of a food or vitamin/ mineral supplement provides. DV has replaced the use of US RDA (United States recommended daily allowance) on labels.

EGCG

EGCG is a natural green tea extract which studies suggest can enhance metabolism. EGCG may be found in green tea.

Folic Acid

Folic acid is essential for the manufacture of DNA, the substances necessary for cell reproduction. It also promotes normal red-blood cell formation. An adequate intake of folic acid is important to reduce the risk of certain birth defects. Good sources of folic acid include: leafy vegetables, some fruits, legumes, liver, yeast breads, wheat germ, and vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, cottonseed, and safflower.

Ginseng (American Ginseng Standardized Extract)

Traditionally used in Asia and parts of the former Soviet Union as a folk medicine “cure-all”. Helps the body adapt to stress.

Iodine

Iodine, best known for keeping the thyroid gland healthy, also helps metabolize fat and aids physical and mental development. Good sources of iodine include: iodized salt and saltwater fish.

Iron

As blood passes through the tiny air sacs in the lungs, oxygen attaches itself to the iron in the blood and is carried to all parts of the body. In general, pre-menopausal women need more iron than men do, because menstruation depletes the body of iron. Good sources of iron include: meat, raisins, green leafy vegetables and nuts.

IU

IU is an abbreviation for international units, a standard unit of measurement for fat soluble vitamins A, D and E.

Lycopene

Lycopene is an antioxidant found in nature in fruits and vegetables. Emerging science suggests that lycopene is one of the ingredients in tomatoes that may be an important tool in maintaining prostate health.

Magnesium

Magnesium is necessary for glucose metabolism, the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, muscle contraction, transmission of nerve impulses and the delicate electrical balance of cells. Good sources of magnesium include: legumes, nuts, whole grains and green vegetables.

Manganese

Manganese helps to metabolize protein and fat. It maintains the health of the immune and nervous systems. It is important for bone

growth and reproduction. Manganese makes it possible for the body to use thiamin and vitamin E. Good sources of manganese include: whole-grain products, along with some fruits and vegetables.

Molybdenum

Molybdenum promotes normal cell function. It enables the body to use nitrogen and is important for enzymes needed in metabolism. Molybdenum helps regulate iron stores in the body. Good sources of molybdenum include: milk, legumes, breads and grain products.

Niacin

Another name for vitamin B3, niacin is found in every cell of the body and is necessary for energy production. It is also needed for DNA formation and to maintain normal function of skin, nerves and the digestive system. Good sources of niacin include: poultry, fish, beef, peanut butter and legumes.

Nickel

NICKEL IS A MINERAL PRESENT IN THE DIET. SOURCES OF NICKEL INCLUDE: NUTS, BEANS, PEAS, GRAIN, AND CHOCOLATE.

Pantothenic Acid

Pantothenic acid is essential for the metabolism of fat and sugar within the body. Good sources of pantothenic acid include: meat, poultry, fish, whole-grain cereals and legumes.

Phosphorus

Phosphorous teams with calcium to aid in cell growth, bone and tooth formation, kidney function and the contraction of the heart. Good sources of phosphorous include: milk, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts

Potassium

Potassium is essential for making all muscles (including the heart) function properly. It is vital for the transmission of nerve impulses, digestion, and the release of insulin. It helps to maintain the fluid level inside and outside cells. Good source of potassium include: fruits, many vegetables, fresh meat, poultry and fish.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

RDAs are published by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, part of the National Academy of Science that establishes goals rather than requirements for healthy persons. Different guidelines are established for 16 different age and gender groups.

Riboflavin

Another name for vitamin B2, riboflavin is found in every cell of the body and is necessary for energy production. It is also needed to maintain metabolism and the function of skin and nerves. Good sources of riboflavin include: milk and other dairy foods, enriched bread and other grain products, eggs, meat, green leafy vegetables and nuts.

Selenium

In combination with vitamin E, selenium works as an antioxidant to help maintain a healthy heart. It also aids in the function of the pancreas, provides elasticity to tissues and helps cells defend themselves against damage from oxidation. Good sources of selenium include: seafood, liver and kidney, as well as other meats.

Silicon

Silicon is required in the body for proper integrity of the skin, ligaments, tendons, and bone. Aging and low estrogen status may decrease a person’s ability to absorb silicon. Sources of silicon include: unrefined grains of high fiber content, such as oatmeal and brown rice, root vegetables, and cereal products.

Soy Isoflavone

Soy extract typically contains soy isoflavones. One study suggests that soy isoflavones can be effective in reducing the frequency and severity of hot flashes in women. Helps support comfort and well-being for women of menopausal age.

Thiamin

Also known as vitamin B1, thiamin participates in the body’s ability to use protein and carbohydrates to produce energy. It also aids metabolism, especially of carbohydrates. It is important for normal functioning of the nervous system. Good sources of thiamin include: whole-grain and enriched grain products, such as beans, rice, pasta and fortified cereals.

Vanadium

Vanadium is a trace mineral present in nature. Because animal studies have shown vanadium helps facilitate glucose uptake into muscle and converts glucose into fat, researchers are investigating the potential role of vanadium supplements in the management of diabetes. Source of vanadium include: shellfish, parsley, mushrooms, dill seed, and wine.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is important for the growth of and development of bones, teeth and gums. It is also essential for night vision, healthy skin, hair and mucous membranes. Good sources of vitamin A include: liver, fish, oil, eggs, and vitamin A fortified foods.

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 influences many body functions including regulating blood glucose levels, manufacturing hemoglobin and aiding the utilization of protein, carbohydrates and fats. It also aids in the function of the nervous system. Good sources of vitamin B6 include: chicken, fish, pork, liver and kidney. It may also be found in whole grain, nuts and legumes.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is essential for normal growth, healthy nerve tissue and blood formation. It is also a crucial element in the reproduction of every cell of the body. Good sources of vitamin B12 include: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk and other dairy foods.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C serves as an antioxidant and plays a role in collagen formation, neurotransmission and tissue repair. Good sources of vitamin C include: oranges, grapefruits and tangerines, many other fruits and vegetables including berries, melons, peppers, dark

green leafy vegetables, potatoes and tomatoes.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D helps the body properly utilize calcium and phosphorous necessary to build strong bones and teeth. Good sources of vitamin D include: fortified milk, cheese, eggs and some fish (sardines and salmon).

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an antioxidant that can prevent a chemical reaction called oxidation, which can sometimes result in harmful effects in your body. It is also important for the proper function of nerves and muscles. Good sources of vitamin E include: vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, cottonseed, and safflower, as well as nuts, seeds and wheat germ.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K helps the blood clot when the body is injured and is important in bone metabolism. Good sources of vitamin K include: green leafy vegetables, such as spinach and broccoli.

Zinc

Zinc is needed for cell growth, reproduction and repair. It helps regulate the body’s immune response and insulin metabolism, and aids the healing of wounds. Good sources of zinc include: meat, seafood and liver.

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