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ANTI-INFECTIVES / ANTIBIOTICS

ANTI-INFECTIVES / ANTIBIOTICS

 

GUIDELINES FOR MAIN ANTI-INFECTIVE DRUGS

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

AMINOGLYCOSIDES (SYSTEMIC)

 

Aminoglycosides are used to treat serious bacterial infections. They work by killing bacteria or preventing their growth. Aminoglycosides are given by injection to treat serious bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. In addition, some aminoglycosides may be given by irrigation (applying a solution of the medicine to the skin or mucous membranes or washing out a body cavity) or by inhalation into the lungs. Streptomycin may also be given for tuberculosis (TB). These medicines may be given with 1 or more other medicines for bacterial infections, or they may be given alone. Aminoglycosides may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor. However, aminoglycosides will not work for colds, flu, or other virus infections. Aminoglycosides given by injection are usually used for serious bacterial infections for which other medicines may not work. However, aminoglycosides may also cause some serious side effects, including damage to patients hearing, sense of balance, and kidneys. These side effects may be more likely to occur in elderly patients and newborn infants. The patient and doctor should talk about the good these medicines may do as well as the risks of receiving them.

Aminoglycosides are to be administered only by or under the immediate supervision of the doctor. They are available in the following dosage forms:

PARENTERAL (Injection)

INHALATION (Inhalation solution) IRRIGATION (Irrigation solution)

 

- Amikacin

- Amikacin

- Kanamycin

- Gentamycin

- Gentamycin

 

- Kanamycin

- Kanamycin

 

- Neomycin

- Tobramycin

 

- Netilmicin

 

 

- Streptomycin

 

 

- Tobramycin

 

 

 

DOSING

The dose of aminoglycosides will be different for different patients.

The following information includes only the average doses of aminoglycosides.The dose may be different in case of kidney disease. If patient’s iindividual dose is different, they must not change it unless their doctor tells them to do so.

The dose of most aminoglycosides is based on body weight and must be determined by the doctor. The medicine is injected into a muscle or vein. Depending on the aminoglycoside prescribed, doses are given at different times and for different lengths of time. These times are as follows:

 

For amikacin

For all dosage forms:

- Adults and children: The dose is given every eight or twelve hours for seven to ten days.

- Newborn babies: The dose is given every twelve hours for seven to ten days.

- Premature babies: The dose is given every eighteen to twenty-four hours for seven to ten days.

 

For gentamycin

For all dosage forms:

- Adults and children: The dose is given every eight hours for seven to ten days or more.

- Infants: The dose is given every eight to sixteen hours for seven to ten days or more.

- Premature and full-term newborn babies: The dose is given every twelve to twenty-four hours for seven to ten days or more.

 

For kanamycin

For all dosage forms:

- Adults and children: The dose is given every eight or twelve hours for seven to ten days.

 

For netilmycin

For all dosage forms:

- Adults and children: The dose is given every eight or twelve hours for seven to fourteen days.

 

For streptomycin

For all dosage forms — The dose of streptomycin is often not based on body weight and the amount given depends on the disease being treated.

 

Treatment of tuberculosis (TB):

- Adults: Dose is based on body weight and must be determined the doctor. This dose is injected into a muscle. The dosing schedule will also be determined the doctor, usually once daily or twice weekly or three times-a-week. This medicine must be given with other medicines for tuberculosis (TB).

- Children and adolescents: Dose is based on body weight and must be determined the doctor. This dose is injected into a muscle. The dosing schedule will also be determined by the doctor, usually once daily or twice weekly or three times-a-week. This medicine must be given with other medicines for tuberculosis (TB).

 

Treatment of bacterial infections:

- Adults: 250 to 500 milligrams of streptomycin is injected into a muscle every six hours; or 500 milligrams to 1 gram of streptomy-

cin is injected into a muscle every twelve hours.

- Children and adolescents: Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by the doctor. This dose is injected into a

muscle every six to twelve hours.

 

For tobramycin

For all dosage forms:

- Adults and adolescents: The dose is given every six to eight hours for seven to ten days or more.

- Older infants and children: The dose is given every six to sixteen hours.

- Premature and full-term newborn babies: The dose is given every twelve to twenty-four hours.

Revised: 09/11/2002

 

Copyright © 2002 Micromedex Inc. All rights reserved. February 4, 2003

© 1998-2003 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.

 

 

 

CEPHALOPSPORINS (SYSTEMIC)

 

DESCRIPTION

Cephalosporins are used in the treatment of infections caused by bacteria. They work by killing bacteria or preventing their

growth.

Cephalosporins are used to treat infections in many different parts of the body. They are sometimes given with other antibiotics.

Some cephalosporins given by injection are also used to prevent infections before, during, and after surgery. However, cepha-

losporins will not work for colds, flu, or other virus infections.

Cephalosporins are available only as doctor’s prescription, in the following dosage forms:

ORAL

PARENTERAL

- Cefaclor (capsules, suspension, extend-release tablets)

- Cefamandole (injection)

- Cefadroxil (capsules, suspension, tablets)

- Cefazolin (injection)

- Cefdinir (capsules, suspension)

- Cefepime (injection)

- Cefditoren (tablets)

- Cefonicid (injection)

- Cefixime (suspension, tablets)

- Cefoperazone (injection)

- Cefpodoxime (suspension, tablets)

- Cefotaxime (injection)

- Cefprozil (suspension, tablets)

- Cefotetan (injection)

- Ceftibuten (capsules, suspension)

- Cefoxitin (injection)

- Cefuroxime (suspension, tablets)

- Ceftazidime (injection)

- Cephalexin (capsules, suspension, tablets)

- Ceftizoxime (injection)

- Cephradine (capsules, suspension, tablets)

- Ceftriaxone (injection)

 

- Cefuroxime (injection)

 

- Cephalothin (injection)

 

- Cephapirin (injection)

 

 

DOSING

The dose of these medicines will be different for different patients.

The following information includes only the average doses of aminoglycosides. The dose may be different in case of kidney disease. If patient’s iindividual dose is different, they must not change it unless their doctor tells them to do so.

The number of capsules or tablets or teaspoonfuls of suspension that the patient takes depends on the strength of the medicine.

Also, the number of doses the patient takes each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time the patient takes the medicine depends on the medical problem for which the patient is taking a cephalosporin.

For cefaclor

For capsule or oral suspension dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 250 to 500 mg every eight hours.

- Infants and children 1 month of age and older — 6.7 to 13.4 mg per kg (3.04 to 6.09 mg per pound) of body weight every eight hours, or 10 to 20 mg per kg (4.54 to 9.09 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours.

For extended-release tablet dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers 16 years of age and older — 375 to 500 mg every twelve hours for seven to ten days.

- Children up to 16 years of age — Use and dose must be determined by the doctor.

For cefadroxil

For oral dosage forms (capsules, oral suspension, or tablets):

- Children — 15 mg per kg (6.81 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours, or 30 mg per kg (13.63 mg per pound) of body weight once a day.

For cefamandole

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 500 mg to 2 grams every four to eight hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

- Infants and children 1 month of age and older — 8.3 to 50 mg per kg (3.77 to 22.72 mg per pound) of body weight every four to eight hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

For cefazolin

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 250 mg to 1.5 grams every six to twelve hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

- Infants and children 1 month of age and older — 6.25 to 25 mg per kg (2.84 to 11.36 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours, or 8.3 to 33.3 mg per kg (3.77 to 15.13 mg per pound) of body weight every eight hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

- Newborns — 20 mg per kg (9.09 mg per pound) of body weight every eight to twelve hours, injected into a vein.

For cefdinir

For capsule or oral suspension dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 300 milligrams (mg) ever twelve hours or 600 mg once a day for 5 to 10 days.

- Infants and children 6 months of age and older — 7 mg per kg (3.18 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours or 14 mg per kg (6.36 mg per pound) once a day for 5 to 10 days.

For cefditoren

For acute bacterial bronchitis

For tablets dosage form:

- Adults and children 12 years of age and older — 400 milligrams (mg) twice a day for 10 days

- Children under 12 years of age — Dose must be determined by the doctor.

 

For bacterial throat infections or tonsillitis: For tablets dosage form:

- Adults and children 12 years of age and older — 200 milligrams (mg) twice a day for 10 days

- Children under 12 years of age — Dose must be determined by the doctor.

For cefepime

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 500 mg to 2 grams every eight to twelve hours, injected into a muscle or vein, for seven to ten days.

- Infants and children 2 months to 16 years of age — 50 mg per kg body weight injected into muscle or vein, every eight to twelve hours, for seven to ten days.

For cefixime

For oral dosage forms (oral suspension or tablets):

- Adults and teenagers — 200 mg every twelve hours, or 400 mg once a day. Gonorrhea is treated with a single, oral dose of 400 mg.

- Children 6 months to 12 years of age — 4 mg per kg (1.81 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours, or 8 mg per kg (3.63 mg per pound) of body weight once a day.

- Infants up to 6 months of age — Use and dose must be determined by the doctor.

For cefonicid

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 500 mg to 2 grams every twenty-four hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

- Children — Use and dose must be determined by the doctor.

For cefoperazone

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 1 to 6 grams every twelve hours, or 2 to 4 grams every eight hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

- Children — Use and dose must be determined by the doctor.

For cefotaxime

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 1 to 2 grams every four to twelve hours, injected into a muscle or vein. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single dose of 500 mg or 1 gram, injected into a muscle.

- Children over 50 kg of body weight (110 pounds) — 1 to 2 grams every four to twelve hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

- Infants and children 1 month of age and older and up to 50 kg of body weight (110 pounds) — 8.3 to 30 mg per kg (3.77 to 13.63 mg per pound) of body weight every four hours, or 12.5 to 45 mg per kg (5.68 to 20.45 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

- Newborns 1 to 4 weeks of age — 50 mg per kg (22.72 mg per pound) of body weight every eight hours, injected into a vein.

- Newborns up to 1 week of age — 50 mg per kilogram (kg) (22.72 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours, injected into a vein.

For cefotetan

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 500 milligrams to 3 grams every twelve hours, or 1 or 2 grams every twenty-four hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

- Children — Use and dose must be determined by the doctor.

For cefoxitin

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 1 to 3 grams every four to eight hours, injected into a vein.

- Infants and children 3 months of age and older — 13.3 to 26.7 mg per kg (6.04 to 12.13 mg per pound) of body weight every four hours, or 20 to 40 mg per kg (9.09 to 18.18 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours, injected into a vein.

- Infants 1 to 3 months of age — 20 to 40 mg per kg (9.09 to 18.18 mg per pound) of body weight every six to eight hours, injected into a vein.

- Newborns 1 to 4 weeks of age — 20 to 40 mg per kg (9.09 to 18.18 mg per pound) of body weight every eight hours, injected into a vein.

- Premature infants weighing 1500 grams and over to newborns up to 1 week of age — 20 to 40 mg per kg (9.09 to 18.18 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours, injected into a vein.

For cefpodoxime

For oral dosage forms (oral suspension or tablets):

- Adults and teenagers — 100 to 400 mg every twelve hours for five to fourteen days. Gonorrhea is treated with a single, oral dose of 200 mg.

- Infants and children 5 months to 12 years of age — 5 mg per kg (2.27 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours for five to ten days, or 10 mg per kg (4.54 mg per pound) of body weight every twenty-four hours for ten days.

- Infants up to 5 months of age — Use and dose must be determined by the doctor.

For cefprozil

For oral dosage forms (oral suspension or tablets):

- Adults and teenagers — 250 or 500 milligrams (mg) every twelve to twenty-four hours for ten days.

- Children 2 to 12 years of age — 7.5 to 20 mg per kg (3.4 to 9.09 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve to twenty-four hours for ten days.

- Infants and children 6 months to 12 years of age — 7.5 to 15 mg per kg (3.4 to 6.81 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours for ten days.

- Infants up to 6 months of age — Use and dose must be determined by the doctor.

For ceftazidime

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 250 mg to 2 grams every eight to twelve hours, injected into a muscle or vein. Patients with cystic fibrosis may receive 30 to 50 mg per kg (13.63 to 22.72 mg per pound) of body weight every eight hours, injected into a vein.

- Infants and children 1 month to 12 years of age — 30 to 50 mg per kg (13.63 to 22.72 mg per pound) of body weight every eight hours, injected into a vein.

- Newborns up to 4 weeks of age — 30 mg per kg (13.63 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours, injected into a vein.

For ceftibuten

For oral dosage forms (capsules or oral suspension):

- Adults and teenagers — 400 milligrams (mg) once a day for ten days.

- Infants and children 6 months to 12 years of age — 9 mg per kg(4.09 mg per pound) of body weight once a day for ten days.

- Infants up to 6 months of age — Use and dose must be determined by the doctor.

For ceftizoxime

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 500 mg to 4 grams every eight to twelve hours, injected into a muscle or vein. Gonorrhea is treated with a single dose of 1 gram, injected into a muscle.

- Infants and children 6 months of age and older — 50 mg per kilogram (22.72 mg per pound) of body weight every six to eight hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

- Infants up to 6 months of age — Use and dose must be determined by the doctor.

For ceftriaxone

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 1 to 2 grams every twenty-four hours, or 500 mg to 1 gram every twelve hours, injected into a muscle or vein. Gonorrhea is treated with a single 250-mg dose, injected into a muscle.

- Infants and children — 25 to 37.5 mg per kg (11.36 to 17.04 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours, or 50 to 75 mg per kg (22.72 to 34.09 mg per pound) of body weight once a day, injected into a muscle or vein. Meningitis is treated with an initial dose of 100 mg per kg, then 100 mg per kg once a day or 50 mg per kg two times a day.

For cefuroxime

For oral suspension dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — The oral suspension is usually used only for children.

Refer to the dosing for cefuroxime tablets.

- Infants and children 3 months to 12 years of age — 10 to 15 mg per kg (4.54 to 6.81 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours for ten days.

For tablet dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 125 to 500 mg every twelve hours. Gonorrhea is treated with a single, oral 1 gram dose.

- Children up to 12 years of age who can swallow tablets whole — 125 or 250 mg every twelve hours for ten days.

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 750 mg to 3 grams every six to eight hours, injected into a muscle or vein. Gonorrhea is treated with a single dose of 1.5 grams, injected into a muscle; the total 1.5-gram dose is divided into two doses and injected into muscles at two separate places on the body, and given along with a single, oral 1 gram dose of probenecid.

- Infants and children 1 month of age and older — 12.5 to 80 mg per kg (5.68 to 36.36 mg per pound) of body weight every six to eight hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

- Newborns — 10 to 50 mg per kg (4.54 to 22.72 mg per pound) of body weight every eight to twelve hours, injected into a vein.

For cephalexin

For oral dosage forms (capsules, oral suspension, or tablets):

- Adults and teenagers — 250 mg to 1 gram every six to twelve hours.

- Children 40 kg (88 pounds) of body weight and over — 250 mg to 1 gram every six to twelve hours.

- Children 1 year of age and older and up to 40 kg (88 pounds) of body weight — 6.25 to 25 mg per kg (2.84 to 11.36 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours, or 12.5 to 50 mg per kg (5.68 to 22.72 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours.

- Infants and children 1 month to 1 year of age — 6.25 to 12.5 mg per kg (2.84 to 5.68 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours.

For cephalothin

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 500 milligrams (mg) to 2 grams every four to six hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

- Children — 13.3 to 26.6 mg per kg (6.04 to 12.09 mg per pound) of body weight every four hours, or 20 to 40 mg per kg (9.09 to 18.18 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

For cephapirin

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 500 mg to 1 gram every four to six hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

- Infants and children 3 months of age and older — 10 to 20 mg per kg (4.54 to 9.09 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours, injected into a muscle or vein.

For cephradine

For bacterial infections:

For oral dosage forms (capsules or oral suspension):

- Adults and teenagers — 250 mg to 1 gram every six to twelve hours.

- Infants and children 9 months of age and older — 6.25 mg to 1 gram per kg (2.84 to 454 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours, or 12.5 to 50 mg per kg (5.68 to 22.72 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours.

Revised: 01/10/2002

 

Copyright © 2002 Micromedex Inc. All rights reserved. February 4, 2003

© 1998-2003 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

FLUOROQUINOLONES (SYSTEMIC)

Fluoroquinolones are used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. They work by killing bacteria or preventing their growth. However, these medicines will not work for colds, flu, or other virus infections. Fluoroquinolones may also be used for other problems as determined by your doctor.

Fluoroquinolones are available only with your doctor’s prescription, in the following dosage forms:

ORAL

PARENTERAL

- Ciprofloxacin (Oral suspension, Tablets)

- Ciprofloxacin (Injection)

- Enoxacin (Tablets)

- Gatifloxacin (Injection)

- Gatifloxacin (Tablets)

- Levofloxacin (Injection)

- Levofloxacin (Tablets)

- Ofloxacin (Injection)

- Lomefloxacin (Tablets)

 

- Moxifloxacin (Tablets)

 

- Norfloxacin (Tablets)

 

- Ofloxacin (Tablets)

 

- Sparfloxacin (Tablets)

 

 

 

 

DOSING

The dose of fluoroquinolones will be different for different patients.

The following information includes only the average doses of fluoroquinolones. Patient dose may be different in case of kidney disease. If individual patient dose is different, patient must not change it unless their doctor tells them to do so.

The number of tablets or amount of oral suspension that the patient takes depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses the patient takes each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time the patient takes the medicine depends on the medical problem for which they are using a fluoroquinolone.

 

For ciprofloxacin

For oral dosage form (oral suspension or tablets):

- Adults: 100 to 750 mg every twelve hours for three to twenty-eight days, depending on the medical problem being treated. Bone and joint infections are usually treated for at least four to six weeks. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 250 mg. Inhalational anthrax is usually treated for sixty days with 500 mg every twelve hours.

- Children up to 18 years of age: This medicine is not recommended for use in infants, children, or teenagers, except in the case of inhalational anthrax. Inhalational anthrax is usually treated for sixty days with 15 mg per kg (6.8 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours.

For injection dosage form:

- Adults: 200 to 400 mg every eight to twelve hours.

- Children up to 18 years of age: This medicine is not recommended for use in infants, children, or teenagers, except in the case of inhalational anthrax. Inhalational anthrax is usually treated for sixty days with 10 mg per kg (4.5 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours.

 

For enoxacin

For oral dosage form (tablets):

- Adults: 200 to 400 mg every twelve hours for seven to fourteen days, depending on the medical problem being treated. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg.

- Children up to 18 years of age: This medicine is not recommended for use in infants, children, or teenagers.

 

For gatifloxacin

For oral dosage form (tablets):

- Adult: 200 to 400 mg every twenty four hours for seven to fourteen days, depending on the medical problems being treated. Gonorrhea and certain bladder infection are usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg.

- Children up to 18 years of age: This medicine is not recommended for use in infants, children, or teenagers.

For injection dosage form:

- Adults: 200 to 400 mg every twenty four hours for seven to fourteen days, depending on the medical problems being treated. Gonorrhea and certain bladder infection are usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg.

- Children up to 18 years of age: This medicine is not recommended for use in infants, children, or teenagers.

 

For levofloxacin

For oral dosage form (tablets):

- Adults: 250 - 750 mg once a day for seven to fourteen days, depending on the medical problem being treated.

- Children up to 18 years of age: This medicine is not recommended for use in infants, children, or teenagers.

For injection dosage form:

- Adults: 250 to 750 mg, injected slowly into a vein, once a day for seven to fourteen days, depending on the medical problem being treated.

- Children up to 18 years of age: This medicine is not recommended for use in infants, children, or teenagers.

 

For lomefloxacin

For oral dosage form (tablets):

- Adults: 400 mg once a day for three to fourteen days, depending on the medical problem being treated.

- Children up to 18 years of age: This medicine is not recommended for use in infants, children, or teenagers.

 

For moxifloxacin

For oral dosage form (tablets):

- Adult: 400 mg once a day for five to ten days, depending on the medical problem being treated.

- Children up to 18 years of age: This medicine is not recommended for use in infants, children, or teenagers.

 

For norfloxacin

For oral dosage form (tablets):

- Adults: 400 mg every twelve hours for three to twenty-eight days, depending on the medical problem being treated. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 800 mg.

- Children up to 18 years of age: This medicine is not recommended for use in infants, children, or teenagers.

 

For ofloxacin

For oral dosage form (tablets):

- Adults: 200 to 400 mg every twelve hours for three to fourteen days, depending on the medical problem being treated. Prostatitis is usually treated for six weeks. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg.

- Children up to 18 years of age: This medicine is not recommended for use in infants, children, or teenagers.

For injection dosage form:

- Adults: 200 to 400 mg, injected slowly into a vein, every twelve hours for three to fourteen days, depending on the medical problem being treated. Prostatitis is usually treated for six weeks. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single dose of 400 mg.

- Children up to 18 years of age: This medicine is not recommended for use in infants, children, or teenagers.

For sparfloxacin

For oral dosage form (tablets):

- Adults: 400 mg on the first day, then 200 mg once a day for an additional nine days.

- Children up to 18 years of age: This medicine is not recommended for use in infants, children, or teenagers.

Revised: 01/08/2002

Copyright © 2002 Micromedex Inc. All rights reserved.

February 4, 2003

© 1998-2003 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION

ISONIAZID (SYSTEMIC)

Isoniazid is used to treat tuberculosis (TB) or prevent its return (reactivation). It may be given alone, or in combination with other medicines, to treat TB or to prevent its return (reactivation). This medicine may also be used for other problems as determined by your doctor.

This medicine may cause some serious side effects, including damage to the liver. Liver damage is more likely to occur in patients over 50 years of age. The patient and their doctor should talk about the good this medicine will do, as well as the risks of taking it. If the patient is being treated for active tuberculosis (TB): To help clear up patient TB infection completely, the patient must keep taking this medicine for the full time of treatment, even if they begin to feel better. This is very important. It is also important that the patient does not miss any doses.

Isoniazid is available only with a doctor’s prescription, in the following dosage forms:

 

ORAL

- Syrup

- Tablets

 

PARENTERAL

DOSING

The dose of isoniazid will be different for different patients.

The following information includes only the average doses of isoniazid. If individual patient dose is different, they must not change it unless their doctor tells them to do so.

The number of tablets or teaspoonfuls of syrup that the patient takes depends on the strength of the medicine.

For oral dosage forms (tablets, syrup):

For preventing the return (reactivation) of tuberculosis:

- Adults and teenagers — 300 milligrams (mg) once a day.

- Children — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 10 mg per kilogram (kg) (4.5 mg per pound) of body weight, up to 300 mg, once a day.

For treatment of tuberculosis:

- Adults and teenagers — 300 mg once a day; or 15 mg per kg (6.8 mg per pound) of body weight, up to 900 mg, two times a week or three times a week, depending on the schedule the doctor chooses.

- Children — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 10 to 20 mg per kg (4.5 to 9.1 mg per pound) of body weight, up to 300 mg, once a day; or 20 to 40 mg per kg (9.1 to 18.2 mg per pound) of body weight, up to 900 mg, two times a week or three times a week, depending on the schedule the doctor chooses.

For injection dosage form:

For preventing the return (reactivation) of tuberculosis:

- Adults and teenagers — 300 mg once a day.

- Children — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 10 mg per kg (4.5 mg per pound) of body weight, up to 300 mg,

once a day.

For treatment of tuberculosis:

- Adults and teenagers — 300 mg once a day; or 15 mg per kg (6.8 mg per pound) of body weight, up to 900 mg, two times a week or three times a week, depending on the schedule the doctor chooses.

- Children — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 10 to 20 mg per kg (4.5 to 9.1 mg per pound) of body weight, up to 300 mg, once a day; or 20 to 40 mg per kg (9.1 to 18.2 mg per pound) of body weight, up to 900 mg, two times a week or

three times a week, depending on the schedule the doctor chooses.

Revised: 06/30/2000

Copyright © 2002 Micromedex Inc. All rights reserved.

February 4, 2003

© 1998-2003 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.

 

DESCRIPTION

 

LINEZOLID (SYSTEMIC)

Linezolid belongs to the family of medicines called antibiotics. Antibiotics are medicines used in the treatment of infections caused

by bacteria. They work by killing bacteria or preventing their growth. Linezolid will not work for colds, flu, or other virus infections.

 

Linezolid is used to treat infections of the blood, lungs, and skin. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor. It is given by injection or orally. It is used mainly for serious infection for which other medicines may not work.

This medicine is available only with your doctor’s prescription, in the following dosage forms:

 

ORAL                                                                                             PARENTERAL

- Oral Suspension                                                                             - Injection

- Tablets

 

DOSING

The dose of linezolid will be different for different patients.

Also, the number of doses the patient takes each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time the patient takes

the medicine depends on the medical problem for which they are taking linezolid.

 

For oral dosage forms:

- Adults — 400 or 600 mg every 12 hours.

- Children — Dose must be determined by the doctor.

For parenteral dosage form (injection):

- Adults — 600 mg every 12 hours.

- Children — Dose must be determined by the doctor.

Revised: 05/02/2001

Copyright © 2002 Micromedex Inc. All rights reserved.

February 4, 2003

© 1998-2003 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

PENICILLINS AND BETA-LACTAMASE INHIBITORS (SYSTEMIC)

 

Penicillins and beta-lactamase inhibitors are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They work by killing the bacteria or preventing their growth. The beta-lactamase inhibitor is added to the penicillin to protect the penicillin from certain substances (enzymes) that will destroy the penicillin before it can kill the bacteria.

There are several different kinds of penicillins. Each is used to treat different kinds of infections. One kind of penicillin usually may not be used in place of another. In addition, penicillins are used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. They are sometimes given with other antibacterial medicines. Some of the penicillins may also be used for other problems as determined by the doctor. However, none of the penicillins will work for colds, flu, or other virus infections. Penicillins are available only with the doctor’s prescription, in the following dosage forms:

 

ORAL

PARENTERAL

Amoxicillin and Clavulanate

Ampicillin and Sulbactam (Injection)

- Oral suspension

Piperacillin and Tazobactam (Injection)

- Tablets

Ticarcillin and Clavulanate (Injection)

- Chewable tablets

 

 

DOSING

The dose of these medicines will be different for different patients. The following information includes only the average doses of these medicines. If individual patient dose is different, patient must not change it unless their doctor tells them to do so. The number of tablets or teaspoonfuls of suspension that the patient takes depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses the patient takes each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time the patient takes the medi- cine depends on the medical problem for which they are taking a penicillin and beta-lactamase inhibitor combination.

 

For amoxicillin and clavulanate combination

For oral dosage forms (chewable tablets and suspension):

- Adults, teenagers, and children weighing more than 40 kg (88 pounds) — 250 to 500 mg of amoxicillin, in combination with 125 mg of clavulanate, every eight hours or 500 to 875 mg of amoxicillin, in combination with 125 mg of clavulanate, every twelve hours.

- Neonates and infants up to 12 weeks (3 months) of age — Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by the doctor. The usual dose is 15 mg of amoxicillin per kg (6.8 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours.

- Infants 3 months of age and older and children weighing up to 40 kg (88 pounds) — 6.7 to 22.5 mg of amoxicillin per kg (3 to 10.2 mg per pound) of body weight, in combination with 1.7 to 3.2 mg of clavulanate per kg (0.8 to 1.5 mg per pound) of body weight, every eight or twelve hours.

For oral dosage form (tablets):

- Adults, teenagers, and children weighing more than 40 kg (88 pounds) — 250 to 500 mg of amoxicillin, in combination with 125 mg of clavulanate, every eight hours or 500 to 875 mg of amoxicillin, in combination with 125 mg of clavulanate, every twelve hours.

- Infants and children weighing up to 40 kg (88 pounds) — The amoxicillin and clauvulanate combination tablets are too strong for children weighing less than 40 kg (88 pounds). The chewable tablets or oral suspension are used in these children.

 

For ampicillin and sulbactam combination

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 1 to 2 grams of ampicillin, in combination with 500 milligrams (mg) to 1 gram of sulbactam, injected into a vein or a muscle every six hours.

- Children 1 to 12 years of age — Dose must be determined by your doctor.

- Children up to 1 year of age — Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

 

For piperacillin and tazobactam combination

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 3 to 4 grams of piperacillin, in combination with 0.375 to 0.5 grams of tazobactam, injected into a vein

every six to eight hours for seven to ten days.

- Children up to 12 years of age — Dose must be determined by the doctor.

 

For ticarcillin and clavulanate combination

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers weighing 60 kilograms (kg) (132 pounds) or more — 3 grams of ticarcillin, in combination with 100 milligrams (mg) of clavulanate, injected into a vein every four to six hours.

- Adults and teenagers weighing less than 60 kg (132 pounds) — 50 mg of ticarcillin per kg (22.7 mg per pound) of body weight, in combination with 1.7 mg of clavulanate per kg (0.8 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a vein every four to six hours.

- Infants and children 1 month to 12 years of age — 50 mg of ticarcillin per kg (22.7 mg per pound) of body weight, in combination with 1.7 mg of clavulanate per kg (0.8 mg per pound) of body weight, injected into a vein every four to six hours.

- Infants up to 1 month of age — Use and dose must be determined by the doctor.

Revised: 12/12/2000

Copyright © 2002 Micromedex Inc. All rights reserved.

February 4, 2003

© 1998-2003 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

SULFONAMIDES (SYSTEMIC)

 

Sulfonamides or sulfa medicines are used to treat infections. They will not work for colds, flu, or other virus infections. Sulfonamides are available only with the doctor’s prescription, in the following dosage forms:

 

ORAL

  • Sulfadiazine (Tablets)
  • Sulfamethizole (Tablets)
  • Sulfamethoxazole (Tablets)
  • Sulfisoxazole (Oral suspension, Syrup,Tablets)

 

DOSING

The dose of these medicines will be different for different patients.

The following information includes only the average doses of these medicines. If individual patient dose is different, the patient must not change it unless thier doctor tells them to do so.

 

For sulfadiazine

For tablet dosage form:

For bacterial or protozoal infections:

- Adults and teenagers — 2 to 4 grams for the first dose, then 1 gram every four to six hours.

- Children up to 2 months of age — Use is not recommended.

- Children 2 months of age and older — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 75 mg per kg (34 mg per pound) of body weight for the first dose, then 37.5 mg per kg (17 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours, or 25 mg per kg (11.4 mg per pound) of body weight every four hours.

 

For sulfamethizole

For tablet dosage form:

For bacterial infections:

- Adults and teenagers — 500 milligrams (mg) to 1 gram every six to eight hours.

- Children up to 2 months of age — Use is not recommended.

- Children 2 months of age and older — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 7.5 to 11.25 mg per kg (3.4 to 5.1 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours.

 

For sulfamethoxazole

For tablet dosage form:

For bacterial or protozoal infections:

- Adults and teenagers — 2 to 4 grams for the first dose, then 1 to 2 grams every eight to twelve hours.

- Children up to 2 months of age — Use and dose must be determined by the doctor.

- Children 2 months of age and older — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 50 to 60 mg per kg (22.7 to 27.3 mg per pound) of body weight for the first dose, then 25 to 30 mg per kg (11.4 to 13.6 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve

 hours.

 

For sulfisoxazole

For suspension, syrup, or tablet dosage forms:

For bacterial or protozoal infections:

- Adults and teenagers — 2 to 4 grams for the first dose, then 750 mg to 1.5 grams every four hours; or 1 to 2 grams every six hours.

- Children up to 2 months of age — Use and dose must be determined by the doctor.

- Children 2 months of age and older — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 75 mg per kg (34 mg per pound) of body weight for the first dose, then 25 mg per kg (11.4 mg per pound) of body weight every four hours, or 37.5 mg per kg (17 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours.

Revised: 08/25/1995

Copyright © 2002 Micromedex Inc. All rights reserved.

 

DESCRIPTION

 

TETRACYCLINES (SYSTEMIC)

 

Tetracyclines are used to treat infections and to help control acne. Demeclocycline, doxycycline, and minocycline also may be used for other problems as determined by the doctor. Tetracyclines will not work for colds, flu, or other virus infections.

Tetracyclines are available only with a doctor’s prescription, in the following dosage forms:

 

ORAL

- Demeclocycline (Tablets)

- Doxycycline (Capsules, Delayed-release capsules, Oral suspension, Tablets)

- Minocycline (Capsules, Oral suspension)

- Oxytetracycline (Capsules)

- Tetracycline (Capsules, Oral suspension)

 

PARENTERAL

- Doxycycline (Injection)

- Minocycline (Injection)

- Oxytetracycline (Injection)

 

DOSING

The dose of these medicines will be different for different patients.

The following information includes only the average doses of these medicines. If individual patient dose is different, the patient must not change it unless thier doctor tells them to do so.

The number of capsules, tablets, or teaspoonfuls of suspension that the patient takes depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses the patient takes each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time the patient takes the medicine depends on the medical problem for which they are taking a tetracycline.

 

For demeclocycline

For oral dosage form (tablets):

For bacterial or protozoal infections:

- Adults and teenagers — 150 mg every six hours; or 300 mg every twelve hours. Gonorrhea is treated with 600 mg on the first

day, then 300 mg every twelve hours for four days.

- Children older than 8 years of age — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 1.65 to 3.3 mg per kg (0.8 to 1.5 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours; or 3.3 to 6.6 mg per kg (1.5 to 3 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours.

- Infants and children 8 years of age and younger — Tetracyclines usually are not used in young children because tetracyclines can permanently stain teeth.

 

For doxycycline

For oral dosage forms (capsules, suspension, and tablets):

For bacterial or protozoal infections:

- Adults and children older than 8 years of age who weigh more than 45 kg (99 pounds) — 100 mg every twelve hours the first day, then 100 mg once a day or 50 to 100 mg every twelve hours.

- Children older than 8 years of age who weigh 45 kg (99 pounds) or less — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 2.2 mg per kg (1 mg per pound) of body weight two times a day on the first day, then 2.2 to 4.4 mg per kg (1 to 2 mg per pound) of body weight once a day or 1.1 to 2.2 mg per kg (0.5 to 1 mg per pound) of body weight twice a day.

- Infants and children 8 years of age and younger — Tetracyclines are usually not used in young children because tetracyclines can permanently stain teeth.

For the prevention of malaria:

- Adults and teenagers — 100 mg once a day. The patient should take the first dose one or two days before travel to an area where malaria may occur, and continue taking the medicine every day throughout travel and for four weeks after you leave the malarious area.

- Children older than 8 years of age — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 2 mg per kg (0.9 mg per pound) of body

weight once a day. The patient should take the first dose one or two days before travel to an area where malaria may occur, and

continue taking the medicine every day throughout travel and for four weeks after you leave the malarious area.

- Infants and children 8 years of age and younger — Tetracyclines are usually not used in young children because tetracyclines

can permanently stain teeth.

For injection dosage form:

For bacterial or protozoal infections:

- Adults and children older than 8 years of age who weigh more than 45 kg of body weight (99 pounds) — 200 mg injected slowly into a vein once a day; or 100 mg injected slowly into a vein every twelve hours the first day, then 100 to 200 mg injected slowly into a vein once a day or 50 to 100 mg injected slowly into a vein every twelve hours.

- Children older than 8 years of age who weigh 45 kg of body weight (99 pounds) or less — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 4.4 mg per kg (2 mg per pound) of body weight injected slowly into a vein once a day; or 2.2 mg per kg (1 mg per pound) of body weight injected slowly into a vein every twelve hours the first day, then 2.2 to 4.4 mg per kg (1 to 2 mg per pound) of body weight once a day, or 1.1 to 2.2 per kg (0.5 to 1 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours.

- Infants and children 8 years of age and younger — Tetracyclines are usually not used in young children because tetracyclines can permanently stain teeth.

 

 

For minocycline

For oral dosage forms (capsules and suspension):

For bacterial or protozoal infections:

- Adults and teenagers — 200 mg at first, then 100 mg every twelve hours; or 100 to 200 mg at first, then 50 mg every six hours.

- Children older than 8 years of age — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 4 mg per kg (1.8 mg per pound) of body weight at first, then 2 mg per kg (0.9 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours.

- Infants and children 8 years of age and younger — Tetracyclines are usually not used in young children because tetracyclines can permanently stain teeth.

For injection dosage form:

For bacterial or protozoal infections:

- Adults and teenagers — 200 mg at first, then 100 mg every twelve hours, injected slowly into a vein.

- Children older than 8 years of age — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 4 mg per kg (1.8 mg per pound) of body weight at first, then 2 mg per kg (0.9 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours, injected slowly into a vein.

- Infants and children 8 years of age and younger — Tetracyclines are usually not used in young children because tetracyclines can permanently stain teeth.

 

For oxytetracycline

For oral dosage form (capsules):

For bacterial or protozoal infections:

- Adults and teenagers — 250 to 500 mg every six hours.

- Children older than 8 years of age — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 6.25 to 12.5 mg per kg (2.8 to 5.7 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours.

- Infants and children 8 years of age and younger — Tetracyclines are usually not used in young children because tetracyclines can permanently stain teeth.

 

For injection dosage form (muscle injection): For bacterial or protozoal infections:

- Adults and teenagers — 100 mg every eight hours; or 150 mg every twelve hours; or 250 mg once a day, injected into a muscle.

- Children older than 8 years of age — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 5 to 8.3 mg per kg (2.3 to 3.8 mg per

pound) of body weight every eight hours; or 7.5 to 12.5 mg per kg (3.4 to 5.7 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours, injected into a muscle.

- Infants and children 8 years of age and younger — Tetracyclines are usually not used in young children because tetracyclines can permanently stain teeth.

 

For tetracycline

For oral dosage forms (capsules and suspension):

For bacterial or protozoal infections:

- Adults and teenagers — 250 to 500 mg every six hours; or 500 mg to 1 gram every twelve hours. Gonorrhea is treated with 1.5 grams as the first dose, then 500 mg every six hours for four days.

- Children older than 8 years of age — Dose is based on body weight. The usual dose is 6.25 to 12.5 mg per kg (2.8 to 5.7 mg per pound) of body weight every six hours; or 12.5 to 25 mg per kg (5.7 to 11.4 mg per pound) of body weight every twelve hours.

- Infants and children 8 years of age and younger — Tetracyclines are usually not used in young children because tetracyclines can permanently stain teeth.

Revised: 05/14/2001

Copyright © 2002 Micromedex Inc. All rights reserved.

February 4, 2003

© 1998-2003 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.

 

ANTIFUNGALS

 

DESCRIPTION

 

AZOLE (SYSTEMIC)

 

Azole antifungals are used to treat serious fungus infections that may occur in different parts of the body. These medicines may also be used for other problems as determined by the doctor.

Oral

- Fluconazole

- Itraconazole

- Ketoconazole

- Nevirapine (e.g., Viramune) — Plasma concentrations of itraconazole or ketoconazole may be decreased.

- Warfarin (e.g., Coumadin) — Anticoagulant effects may be increased.

 

DOSING

The dose of azole antifungals may be different for different patients.

The following information includes only the average doses of azole antifungals. Patient dose of fluconazole may be different in case of kidney disease. If individual patient dose is different, the patient must not change it unless their doctor tells them to do so. The number of capsules or tablets, or the amount of oral suspension or injection that the patient takes depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses the patient takes each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time the patient takes the medicine depends on the medical problem for which they are taking azole antifungals.

 

For fluconazole

For fungus infections:

For capsule dosage form:

- Adults — 150 milligrams (mg) as a single dose to treat vaginal yeast infections.

- Children up to 18 years of age — Dose must be determined by the doctor.

 

For oral suspension and tablet dosage forms:

- Adults and teenagers — 200 to 400 mg on the first day, then 100 to 400 mg once a day for weeks or months, depending on the problem being treated. A vaginal yeast infection is treated with a single dose of 150 mg.

- Children 6 months of age and older — 6 to 12 mg per kilogram (mg/kg) (2.7 to 5.4 mg per pound) of body weight on the first

day, then 3 to 12 mg/kg (1.35 to 5.4 mg per pound) of body weight once a day for weeks or months, depending on the medical

problem being treated.

- Infants and children up to 6 months of age — Dose must be determined by the doctor.

 

For injection dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 200 to 400 mg on the first day, then 100 to 400 mg once a day, injected into a vein, for weeks or

months, depending on the medical problem being treated.

- Children 6 months of age and older — 6 to 12 mg per kilogram (mg/kg) (2.7 to 5.4 mg per pound) of body weight on the first day, then 3 to 12 mg/kg (1.35 to 5.4 mg per pound) of body weight once a day, injected into a vein, for weeks or months, depending on the medical problem being treated.

- Infants and children up to 6 months of age — Dose must be determined by your doctor.

 

For itraconazole

For fungus infections:

For capsule dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 200 milligrams (mg) once a day, which may be increased up to 400 mg once a day for weeks or months, depending on the medical problem being treated. Fingernail and toenail infections are treated with 200 mg one or two times a day for weeks or months.

- Children up to 16 years of age — Dose must be determined by your doctor.

 

For injection dosage form:

- Adults — 200 milligrams (mg) twice a day for 4 doses, then 200 mg once a day.

- Children — Dose must be determined by the doctor.

 

For oral solution dosage form:

- Adults and teenagers — 100 to 200 mg once a day for days or weeks, depending on the medical problem b

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