Sign In or Register
Username:
Password:
Don't have
an account?
REGISTER NOW!
It takes only a moment.

PHYSIOLOGICAL VALUES FOR SOME BODY FLUIDS

PHYSIOLOGICAL VALUES FOR SOME BODY FLUIDS

The values given below have been taken from many sources and represent approximate normal ranges or typical normal values. In practice normal values can vary considerably from laboratory to laboratory depending on the reagents and analytical methods used. Therefore when evaluating the results of laboratory tests the normal values from the laboratory which performed the test should be consulted.

BLOOD

The values given below have been taken from many sources and represent approximate normal ranges or typical normal values. In practice normal values can vary considerably from laboratory to laboratory depending on the reagents and analytical methods used. Therefore when evaluating the results of laboratory tests the normal values from the laboratory which performed the test should be consulted.

 

 

BLOOD

 

 

 

 

Physical values

 

 

 

Circulation time

3 - 8 seconds (arm to lung)

 

 

Freezing point

- 0.52

 

 

Osmolality, Plasma

280 - 295 mmol/kg

 

 

pH, Arterial

7.35 - 7.45

 

 

Pressure, arterial

 

 

 

 

Systolic

< 140 mm Hg

 

 

Diastolic

< 90 mm Hg

 

Specific gravity

1.05 - 1.06

 

 

Volume, blood

50 - 80 ml/kg bodyweight

 

 

Volume, plasma

31 - 55 ml/kg bodyweight

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hematological values

Blood count, complete

 

 

 

 

Hematocrit (Packed cell volume)

Male: 40 - 54%

 

 

 

Female: 35 - 47%

 

 

Hemoglobin

Male: 13 - 18 g/100 ml

 

 

 

Female: 12 - 16 g/100 ml

 

 

Red cell count

Male:4.5 - 6.5 x 1012/litre (4.5 - 6.5 million/mm3)

 

 

 

Female: 3.9-5.6x1012/litre (3.9-5.6 million/mm3)

 

 

White cell count

4000 - 11000/mm3

 

 

 

 

 

Coagulation tests

 

 

 

Bleeding time

 

 

 

 

Duke’s method

< 7 minutes

 

 

Ivy method

< 7 minutes

 

Clotting time, Lee white method

5 - 11 minutes

 

 

Partial thromboplastin time, activated

35 - 60 seconds

 

 

Prothrombin time, Quick one stage

12 - 20 seconds

 

 

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

Male: 3 - 5 mm/1 hour

 

 

 

Westergren method

Female: 4 - 7 mm/1 hour

 

Hemoglobin A2

1.5 - 3.5%

 

 

Hemoglobin F

< 2%

 

 

Hepatoglobin

0.3 - 2.0 g/l

 

 

Platelet count

150.000 - 400.000/mm3

 

 

Red cell diameter

6.7 - 7.7 mcm (7.2 mcm)

 

 

Red cell thickness

1.7 - 2.5 mcm

 

 

Red cell volume

23 - 35 ml/kg body weight

 

 

Reticulocyte count

0.5 - 2.0% of red cells

 

 

White cell count, differential

 

 

 

 

Neutrophils, segmented

2500 - 75 /mm3

 

 

Lymphocytes

1500 - 3500/mm3

 

 

Monocytes

200 - 800/mm3

 

 

Eosinophils

40 - 440/mm3

 

 

Basophils

15 - 100/mm3

 

 

 

 

 

Blood gases and Acid-Base values

Base excess

± 2.3 mmol/l

 

 

Bicarbonate

 

 

 

Plasma

21 - 30 mmol/l

 

 

Standard

22 - 28 mmol/l

 

 

Buffer base

5 - 50 mmol/l

 

 

Carbon dioxide

 

 

 

Arterial PCO2

36 - 44 mm Hg

 

 

Total CO2

23 - 33 mmol/l

 

 

Oxygen

 

 

 

Arterial PCO2

90 - 110 mm Hg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chemical values

 

Metric

SI

 

Alpha-amino acid nitrogen

P 30 - 55mg/l

2.1 - 4 mmol/l

 

Ammonium nitrogen

B 400 - 800 mcg/l

29 - 57 mcmol/l

 

(enzymatic method)

 

 

 

Amylase

S 0.8 - 1.8 Somogyi u/ml

-

 

 

3 - 10 Wohlgemuth u/ml

-

 

 

86 - 268 IU/l

-

 

Angiotensin II

B 12 - 36 ng/l

11.6 - 34.9 pmol/l

 

Ascorbic acid

B 5 - 20 mg/l¨

28 - 114 mcmol/l

 

Bicarbonate

 

21 - 28 mmol/l

 

Bilirubin

 

 

 

 

Total

S 1 - 15 mg/l 1

.7 - 2.5 mcmol/l

 

Total newborn

S 10 -120 mg/l

17 - 205 mcmol/l

Caeruloplasmin

 

 

 

 

Adults

S 300 - 600 mg/l

-

 

Children

S 130 - 300mg/l

-

Calcium

 

 

 

 

Total

S 85 - 105 mg/l

2.1 - 2.6 mmol/l

 

Ionised

S 40 - 50 mg/l

1 - 1.25 mmol/l

Catecholamines (At rest)

 

 

 

 

Adrenaline

P 55 ng/l

0.3 nmol/l

 

Noradrenaline

P 254 ng/l

1.5 nmol/l

Chloride

S 3.368 - 3.723 g/l

95 - 105 mmol/l

 

 

P

 

 

Copper

S 0.7 - 1.5 mg/l

11 - 24 mcmol/l

 

 

P 0.7 - 1.5 mg/l

11 - 24 mcmol/l

 

Cortisol

9 am

P 50 - 260 mcg/l

138 - 717 nmol/l

 

5 pm

P 20 - 180 mcg/l

53 - 133 mcmol/l

Cyanocobalamin

S 100 - 800 ng/l

47 - 590 pmol/l

 

Fibronogen

P 2 - 4 g/l

 -

 

Folate

S 3 - 25 mcg/l

-

 

Gastrin

S or P 5 - 290 ng/l

-

 

Glucagon

P 0.4- -1.4 mcg/l

115 - 402 pmol/l

 

Glucose, fasting

S or P 0.7 - 1.1 g/l

3.9 - 6.1 mmol/l

 

Growth Hormone

S < 10 mcg/l

-

 

Immunoglobulins

S

 

 

 

IgA

0.5 - 4 g/l

-

 

IgD

5 - 50 mg/l

-

 

IgE

0.1 - 1.3 mg/l

-

 

IgG

8 - 16 g/l

 

 

Ig M

 0.4 - 2.9 g/l

 -

Insulin

S 4 - 30 milliunits/l

-

 

Iodin, protein bound (PBI)

S 35 - 80 mcg/l

276 - 630 nmol/l

 

Iron, total

S 0.5 - 1.8 mg/l

9 - 32 mcmol//

 

Iron-binding capacity

S 2.5 - 4.5 mg/l

45 - 81 mcmol/l

 

Ketones (acetoacetate& acetone)

B < 30 mg/l

 

 

Lactic acid

 

 

 

 

Arterial

B 30 - 70 mg/l

0.3 - 0.8 mol/l

 

Venous

B 50 - 200 mg/l

0.56 - 2.2 mmol/l

Lead

B < 800 mcg/l < 3.9 mcmol/l

 

 

Lipids,

 

 

 

 

Total

S 4 - 10 g/l

-

 

Cholesterol

S 1.1 - 3.0 g/l

2.8 - 7.8 mmol/l

 

Triglycerides

S 0.4 - 1.5 g/l

-

Magnesium

S 18 - 30 mg/l

0.7 - 1.2 mmol/l

 

Phenylalanine

S< 40 mg/l

< 242 mcmol/l

 

Phosphatase,

 

 

 

 

acid, total

S 0.5 - 4 u/100 ml (King Armstrong)

 

 

alkaline, total

S 4 - 13 u/100 ml (King Armstrong)

 

Phosphorus, inorganic

 

 

 

 

adults S or P 25 - 45 mg/l

0.8 - 1.5 mmol/l

 

Potassium

 P 137 - 196 mg/l

3.5 - 5 mmol/l

 

Prolactin

S 2 - 15 mcg/l

 

 

Protein,

 

 

 

 

total serum

S 60 - 84 g/l

 

 

albumin

S 30 - 52 g/l

 

 

globulin

 S 23 - 37 g/l

 

Pyruvic acid

B 3 - 10 mg/l

34 - 114 mcmol/l

 

Sodium

P 3.1 - 3.4 g/l

135 - 148 mmol/l

 

Sulphate, inorganic

S 9 - 60 mg/l

94 - 625 mcmol/l

 

Transaminases

 

 

 

 

SGOT

S 0 - 30 iu/l

 

 

SGPT

S 0 - 24 iu/l

 

Thyroid hormone tests

 

 

 

 

TSH

S 0.5 - 3.5 milliunits/l

 

 

T3 (Radioimmunoassay)

S 0.7 - 1.9 mcg/ l

 

 

T4 (Radioimmunoassay)

S 40 - 120 mcg/ l

 

 

T4 Free

S 10 - 40 ng/ l

 

Urea nitrogen (BUN)

B or S 80 - 250 mg/l

5.7 - 17.9 mmol/l

 

Urea

B 171 - 535 mg/l

2.9 - 8.9 mmol/l

 

Uric acid

S 15 - 70 mg/l

89 - 417 mcmol/l

 

Vitamin A

S 150 - 900 mcg/l

0.5 - 3.1 mcmol/l

 

Zinc

S 0.5 - 1.5 mg/l

8 - 23 mcmol/l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

 

 

 

 

Physical Values

 

 

 

Osmolality

306 mmol/kg

 

 

pH

7.33 - 7.37

 

 

Pressure

60 - 180 mm of water

 

 

Specific gravity

1.0062 - 1.0082

 

 

volume, adults

100 - 160 ml

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chemical Values

 

 

 

Calcium

1 - 1.5 mmol/l

 

 

Chloride

120 - 130 mmol/l

 

 

Glucose

2.5 - 4.5 mmol/l

 

 

Lactate dehydrogenase

0.2 - 4 iu/ml Protein

 

 

Lumbar

150 - 500 mg/l

 

 

Cisternal

100 - 300 mg/l

 

 

Ventricular

0 - 150 mg/l

 

 

Albumin/Globulin ratio

 

 

 

Adults

2:1

 

 

Infants< 1 year

1:1

 

 

Albumin

100 - 300 mg/l

 

 

Globulin

60 - 160 mg/l

 

 

Urea

2 - 7 mmol/l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

URINE

 

 

 

 

Physical Values

 

 

 

Glomerular filtration rate

100 - 150 ml/min

 

 

Osmolality

100 - 1000 mmol/kg

 

 

pH

4.5 - 8.0

 

 

Specific gravity

1.010 - 1.025

 

 

Volume, normal adult

800 - 2000 ml/24 h

 

 

 

Chemical values

Metric

SI

Alpha amino acid nitrogen

50 - 300 mg/24 h

3.6 - 21.4 mmol/ 24 h

Delta aminolaevulinic acid

0.1 - 7.5 mg/24 h

0.8 - 57 mcmol/24h

Calcium

100 - 300 mg/24 h

2.5 - 7.5 mmol/24 h

Catecholamines

 

 

Adrenaline

< 20mcg/24 h

< 109 nmol/ 24 h

Noradrenaline

< 100 mcg/24 h

< 591 nmol/24 h

Chloride

3.545 - 8.863 g/ 24 h

100 - 250 mmol/24 h

Creatine, adults

0 - 100 mg/ 24 h

0 - 763 mcmol/ 24 h

Creatinine

1 - 2 g/24 h

8 - 18 mmol/24 h

Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU)

0 - 3 mg/24 h

0 - 17 mcmol/24 h

After 15 g of L-Histidine

4 mg/8 h

23 mcmol/8 h

Homovanilic acid (HVA)

0 - 15 mg/24 h

0 - 82 mvmol/24 h

Hydroxyindole acetic acid (HIAA)

3 - 14 mg/24 h

16 - 73 mcmol/24 h

Lead

< 100 mcg/24 h

< 483 nmol/24 h

Magnesium

49 - 243 mg/24 h

2 - 10 mmol/24 h

Oxalate

15 - 40 mg/24 h

167 - 444 mcmol/24 h

Phosphate, inorganic

0.5 - 1.5 g/24 h

16 - 48 mcmol/24 h

Potassium

1.4 - 3.5 g/24 h

35 - 90 mmol/24 h

Protein

< 100 mg/24 h

-

Urea

10 - 30 g/24 h

167 - 500 mmol/24 h

Uric acid
 High purine diet


up to 0.2g/24 h


up to 12 mmol/24 h

Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)

up to 9 mg/24 h

up to 45 mcmol/24 h

 

 

Clearance values Serum and urine

« Previous:
A GUIDE TO THE TREATMENT OF COMMON AILMENTS
Next:
CARDIOLOGY »

 

Aminohippuric acid (PAH) clearance

600 - 750 ml/min

Creatinine clearance (endogenous)

95 - 135 ml/min